Tech blog (36)

Implementing Equals() and GetHashCode() in ORM classes with autoincrement keys

The requirements for implementing Equals() and GetHashCode() in .Net are very hard to satisfy and in some areas nearly impossible. There are some situations where an object's identity inevitably changes, and saving an ORM-mapped object with autogenerated key is a case in point. Making its hash code conform with requirements would require an inordinately large quantity of code.

The plot goes something like this: loading ORM objects on the same session (in NHibernate speak) or context (Entity Framework) guarantees that for one record only one object instance will be created. But, if you use multiple sessions/context, no such guarantee exists. (And you want to do this if objects have different lifespans: for example, you fill a combo box once and then bind it to different records... Obviously, I'm talking about WinForms here, but the principle applies to server-side logic although it's probably not as frequent). In case of multiple instances, .Net components don't know it's the same record unless you override Equals() and get them compared by primary key values. In WinForms, for example, this means that a combo box won't know which record in the dropdown is equal to the one in the bound property, and won't select it.

Ok, so we override Equals(): usually, the record has an autoincrement key called, say, ID. We implement it so that it compares ID's of different objects (and type, obviously)... And now we run into the .Net requirement which says that two objects that are equal must have the same hash code, and that the hash code must never change for an object. We can override GetHashCode() to return the hash of the ID, but if the object gets saved to the database, the ID - and therefore the hash - will change.

Here's an example of how it would work: create a new ORM object instance, it's ID is NULL or zero. Use it as index in a dictionary, the dictionary retrieves the index's hash code and stores data in a special bucket for this hash. Save the record - the ID changes. If the hash code changes now, you won't be able to retrieve your data from the dictionary anymore. But if you load this record on a different session/context, it will have a different hash code unless we somehow notify it to use the already generated one... Which would probably mean using a static instance of a component that tracks all objects. Way too much work to get a hash code right, isn't it...

A couple of details that could lead us closer to a solution:

  • On a new object instance (unsaved - with ID null or zero or whatever), we cannot use the ID in our overrides. Two objects with the empty ID are not equal nor will they ever be: if they both get saved into the database, it will create two separate records, and their IDs will acquire new values that were never used before... An unsaved object is only equal to itself. We could generate same hash codes for unsaved objects, but this wouldn't resolve our problem if a saved object gets its hash from the ID - it would still be different.
  • While we're at it, it's useful knowing how the Dictionary works: it calls GetHashCode() on the given index and stores the entry in a bucket tagged with this hash code. Of course, there may be multiple objects with the same hash, and a bucket may contain multiple entries. Therefore, when retrieving data, the dictionary also calls Equals() on indexes in the bucket to see which of the entries is the right one. This means we have to get both Equals() and GetHashCode() right for the dictionary to work: Equals() should be OK in its simplest form if we always use the same instance for the index - basically, Equals() must be able to recognise the object as equal to itself.
  • Other components, like grids and combo boxes, also use hash codes to efficiently identify instances, so a dictionary isn't the only thing we're supporting with this.

One part of the solution seems mandatory: we need to remember the generated hash on the object. This is mandatory only on an object whose ID may change in the future: if a saved object gets a permanent ID (as they usually do), caching is not necessary. If an unsaved object gets saved, we still use the hash we generated using the empty ID. We do this on-demand: when GetHashCode() is called, the hash is generated and remembered. This is probably the only meaningful way to do this, but it's worth pointing out one detail: if the object isn't used in a dictionary, it's hash won't be generated and won't change when it's saved. Thus, we narrowed down our problem to where this feature is actually used.

But there's still the possibility to have two objects that are equal (same record loaded on different sessions) but have different hash codes (the first one saved into the database and then the same record loaded afterwards). I'm not sure what problems this would create, but one is obvious: we wouldn't be able to use both of them interchangeably in a dictionary (or, possibly, a grid). This is not entirely unnatural, at least to me: if I used an object as an index in a dictionary, I'm regarding the stored entry as related to the object instance and not the record that sits behind it. I'm unaware of other consequences - please comment if you know any.

Note that we can also avoid the dictionary problem by using the IDs themselves instead of objects... But still, it would remain for grids and elsewhere. Also I'm not sure if it could be resolved by not using the data layer (ORM) objects in the dictionaries and grids but having data copied into business layer object instances: if we did this, we'd still need a component that tracks duplicates, only it would track business objects instead of data objects.

Can we narrow this further down? A rather important point is that the ID gets changed only when saving data - and ORMs usually save the whole session as one transaction. If we discarded the saved session and started afresh, we'd get correct hash codes and unchanged IDs. We'd only have a brief period of possible irregularity in the time after the old data is saved and before new data is loaded, and only if we load data on different sessions and use it in a dictionary or some other similar component. In client-side applications, this is a risky period anyway because different components get the new data at different times, and care must be taken not to mix it. At least some kind of freeze should be imposed on the components - suspending layout, disabling databinding etc. Also, reloading data is natural if you have logic that runs in the database (usually triggers) that may perform additional changes to data after we saved ours (and it may do this on related records, not just the ones we saved)... But that is a different, as they say, can of worms: it's just that these worms often link up to better plot our ruin.

Running 64-bit Ace OLEDB driver with 32-bit Office

When 32-bit Microsoft Office is installed on 64-bit Windows, there is a problem connecting to OLEDB sources using Microsoft Jet provider from .Net applications (and probably others). A .Net application, unless otherwise instructed, runs as 64-bit on 64-bit OS's and expects a 64-bit OLEDB provider for Jet. But, since Office is 32-bit, there is no 64-bit provider, and it complains that the provider is "not registered on the local machine". Actually, there doesn't seem to exist a 64-bit Jet provider, and the recommendation is to use the replacement provider which is called ACE and is backwards compatible with Jet. You get it by installing the Microsoft Access Database Engine Redistributable (one version available here) - but: the 32-bit installation doesn't solve the problem, and the 64-bit installation refuses to install because you don't have 64-bit Office.

There are many possible solutions and workarounds on the net (of which the most frequent one is to degrade your application to running 32-bit only) but the real solution is not easy to find. You need to force the 64-bit Access engine installation to install by calling it with the "/passive" argument. Call it from the command prompt like so:

AccessDatabaseEngine_X64.exe /passive

Be careful, though, not to install the same version of the engine as your version of Office. To be more precise, if you install 64-bit Access 2010 engine when 32-bit Office 2010 is present on the system, your Office applications may start complaining. On my laptop, Microsoft Excel started showing a dialog that said "One of your object libraries (|) is missing or damaged" and then tried to install/repair some components, ending with an error saying that it doesn't have the rights to install fonts (?!). This was easily resolved by uninstalling the 64-bit Access engine and installing the 32-bit one, but afterwards my ACE driver was gone again. The winning combination was to upgrade to Office 2013 (still 32-bit) and then install the 64-bit Access 2010 engine. This also seems to work with the Office 2016 / Engine 2010 combination, but not with Office 2010 / Engine 2013... It seems that the newer engine versions are smarter and don't fall for the "/passive" trick, but I haven't tried that many combinations to be sure.

As the last step, you need to change your connection string to use ACE instead of Jet and you're done. What I usually do is have a utility component that detects the presence of drivers and uses ACE as a fallback to Jet. For Excel files, it looks something like this:

/// <summary>
/// True if ACE oleDb driver is supported. False if not. Null if not checked yet.
/// </summary>
private bool? AceOleDbSupported = null;

/// <summary>
/// Name of the Excel file to be imported
/// </summary>
public string FileName { get; set; }

/// <summary>
/// True if the excel file's first row counts as a header
/// </summary>
public bool HasHeaderRow { get; set; }

public string GetConnectionString()
    if (AceOleDbSupported == null)
        OleDbEnumerator e = new OleDbEnumerator();
        AceOleDbSupported = e.GetElements().Rows.Cast<DataRow>().Any(dr => dr["SOURCES_NAME"] as string == "Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0");
    if (AceOleDbSupported.Value)
        return "Provider=Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0;"
            + "Data Source=" + FileName
            + @";Extended Properties=""Excel 8.0;IMEX=1;"
            + "HDR=" + (HasHeaderRow ? "YES" : "NO") + @";""";
        return "Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;"
            + "Data Source=" + FileName
            + @";Extended Properties=""Excel 8.0;"
            + "HDR=" + (HasHeaderRow ? "YES" : "NO") + @";""";

Fluent API vs. named arguments for readability

Fluent APIs are great to make code readable - should I say, at the expense of verbosity? Because verbosity is, actually, one of the positive traits of being fluent. It is very useful in complex and hard to follow scenarios like data transformation (think LINQ), configuration, testing etc., leading the developer to the solution but also documenting what's going on.

One example: I have a LINQ-like method that processes an array. It takes as parameters a criterion for determining duplicates and separate operations for new and repeated entries. It could look like this:

    r => r.Name.Trim(),
    x => new Entry() { Name = x.Name.Trim(), Date = x.Date },
    (a, b) => { b.Date = a.Date > b.Date ? b.Date : a.Date; }

But it isn't obvious what's going on here... The code isn't descriptive at all - and only partially due to the fact that the variable naming scheme stinks. If we make it fluent, the purpose is much clearer:

    .WithKey(r => r.Name.Trim())
    .SelectFirstAppearance(x => new Entry() { Name = x.Name.Trim(), Date = x.Date })
    .ProcessRepeatedAppearance((a, b) => { b.Date = a.Date > b.Date ? b.Date : a.Date; });

But what is the real difference here? In the second example we introduced methods just to describe the parameters from the first example. These parameters had names, though, didn't they, and in this respect the biggest flaw of the first example was that they were invisible. But, we can make them visible using named arguments. Like this:

    key: r => r.Name.Trim(),
    selectFirstAppearance: x => new Entry() { Name = x.Name.Trim(), Date = x.Date },
    processRepeatedAppearance: (a, b) => { b.Date = a.Date > b.Date ? b.Date : a.Date; }

Arguably, this makes the code as readable as the fluent example - aesthetic concerns aside. Of course, fluent can be much more powerful than this and allow more flexibility by providing different methods for different scenarios. But, when describing parameters is the primary concern, named arguments may work just as well.

Naturally, standard rules for code readability also apply, and the first one is naming. If we give descriptive names to arguments, we get something like this:

    key: sourceRow => sourceRow.Name.Trim(),
    selectFirstAppearance: sourceRow => new Entry() { Name = sourceRow.Name.Trim(), Date = sourceRow.Date },
    processRepeatedAppearance: (sourceRow, previousEntry) => { previousEntry.Date = sourceRow.Date > previousEntry.Date ? previousEntry.Date : sourceRow.Date; }

This could be enough for someone familiar with the API to understand the intention.

New site, new technology, old blog

Just a short notice: We have migrated our site to different technology (from WordPress to Joomla K2) and new design. I think I managed to reconstruct all blog posts and comments so it should work as before. Of feed URLs I'm not sure, I added a redirection for the main feed but category and comment feeds are probably unusable, so please update to new ones. If you find something wrong with the blog, please contact us at office (at)

Building customizable applications in .Net

Most modern applications today have at least some degree of modularity and customizability. By customizability I mean its simplest form - having one “vanilla” application with standard features and many derived versions adapted with minimal modifications to customer’s needs. It is common practice to use dependency injection (DI) and with it we can influence the behaviour of our application by being able to replace one component with another. But DI alone does not provide everything needed to make the application truly customizable. Each aspect of an application needs to support modularity and customizability in its own way. For example, how do you maintain a customized relational database?

This post is intended to be the first of a series regarding issues and solutions we found developing our own customizable application, a kind of an introduction to the subject so that I can write about concrete solutions to concrete problems, as/when they pop up. Here I’ll give an overview of the general architecture, problems and possible solutions.

Our product is a .Net WinForms line-of-business application. I think WinForms is still the best environment for LOB apps as the others are still not mature enough (like WPF) or simply not suitable (like the web). I would say it’s also good for customizability because it doesn’t impose an overly complex architecture: customizability will make it complex by itself.

As I said, DI fits naturally at the heart of such a system. DI can be used for large-grained configuration in the sense that it can transparently replace big components with other components implementing the same features. It’s generally suitable for assembling interfaces and possibly bigger parts of the business logic. It’s not very suitable for a data access layer: even if you used a superfast DI container that puts no noticeable overhead when used with thousands of records, that would be just part of the solution. A bigger question would be how you can customize queries or the database schema. So, for data access we need a different solution, and I believe that this part of the puzzle is the most slippery since it’s so heterogeneous. Firstly, there’s usually the relational database that’s not modular at all: how do you maintain different versions of the same database, each with part of its structure custom-built for a specific client? (It would be, I suppose, a huge relief if an object-oriented database was used, but this is rarely feasible in LOB). Then, there are SQL queries which you cannot reuse/override/customize unless you parse the SQL. Then the data access classes, etc.

Get content from WPF DataGridCell in one line of code (hack)

How do you get the text displayed in a WPF DataGridCell? It should be simple, but incredibly it doesn’t seem it is: all the solutions given on the ‘net contain at least a page of code (I suppose the grid designers didn’t think anyone would want to get the value from a grid cell). But when you quick-view a DataGridCell in the debugger, it routinely shows the required value in the “value” column. It does this by calling a GetPlainText() method, which, unfortunately, isn’t public. We can hack it by using reflection – and, absurdly, this solution seems more elegant than any other I’ve seen.

DataGridCell cell = something;

var value = typeof(DataGridCell).GetMethod("GetPlainText", 
System.Reflection.BindingFlags.NonPublic | System.Reflection.BindingFlags.Instance)
.Invoke(cell, null);

CruiseControl.Net Missing Xml node (sourceControls) for required member (ThoughtWorks . CruiseControl . Core . Sourcecontrol . MultiSourceControl . SourceControls).

It’s a silly error but the solution is not very obvious or logical… I modified my CruiseControl.Net configuration to include multiple source control nodes, but it started complaining that the XML was malformed. The error was something like

[CCNet Server] ERROR CruiseControl.NET [(null)] - Exception: 
  Unable to instantiate CruiseControl projects from configuration document.
  Configuration document is likely missing Xml nodes required for properly populating CruiseControl configuration.
  Missing Xml node (sourceControls) for required member (ThoughtWorks.CruiseControl.Core.Sourcecontrol.MultiSourceControl.SourceControls).
  Xml: <sourcecontrol><sourcecontrols><hg><executable>C:\Program Files\TortoiseHg\hg.exe</executable> […]

It complains of a missing sourceControls node for required member SourceControls – but it’s present in the xml. The problem is the capital “C”: 1. XML is case-sensitive. 2. CruiseControl config tags are inconsistent in that sourcecontrol is not camel-cased but sourceControls is. That’s what confused me - hopefully this post will help someone else.

Workaround for HQL SELECT TOP 1 in a subquery

HQL doesn’t seem to support clauses like “SELECT TOP N…”, which can cause headaches when for example you need to get the data for the newest record from a table. One way to resolve this would be to do something like “SELECT * FROM X WHERE ID in (SELECT ID FROM X WHERE Date IN (SELECT MAX(Date) FROM X))”, a doubly nested query which looks complicated even in this simple example and gets out of control when query conditions need to be more complex.

What is the alternative? Use EXISTS – as in “a newer record doesn’t exist”. It still looks a bit ugly but at least it’s manageable. The above query would then look like this: “SELECT * FROM X AS X1 WHERE NOT EXISTS(SELECT * FROM X AS X2 WHERE X2.Date > X1.Date)”

Note that this works only for “SELECT TOP 1”. For a greater number there doesn’t seem to be a solution at all.

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